Helpful Links for those Writing & Publishing Scholarly Information
Guide to Ethical Writing
The Office of Research Integrity (part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) maintains a learning module and publication by Miguel Roig, Avoiding Plagiarism, Self-Plagiarism, and Other Questionable Writing Practices: A Guide to Ethical Writing
Securing Copyright Permissions When Writing
Securing permission to use copyrighted materials in teaching can be quite different from seeking permission for use of others' copyrighted materials while writing and publishing. This section focuses on permissions from a researcher's or author's perspective.
Basic information about copyright is available at
- Review Dr. Kenneth D. Crews's Procedures for Securing Permission, a guide to asking permissions to use copyrighted works.
- Use the Columbia Copyright Advisory Office Permissions guide to find models of letters to write when contacting a copyright owner.
All UB students and faculty should be familiar with responsible and ethical publishing practices. This includes knowing answers to:
- Who should be listed as an author? Who should not be listed?
- What constitutes self-plagiarism?
- What is salami-slicing data, and what is the harm?
- What is redundant publication, and what is the harm?
- Can you submit an article to more than one journal?
- What is a journal's right of first publication?
- Is plagiarism the same as copyright infringement?
Many federal agencies, and an increasing number of private funders, require researchers to do things such as:
- ...provide a Data Management Plan for their research
- ... make their findings publicly accessible. This may involve...
If this is the case, below you will find helpful links to relevant information.
Data Management Plans
A Data Management Plan (DMP)...
- ...describes the data you expect to acquire or generate during the course of a research project
- ...tells how you will manage, describe, analyze, and store those data
- ...documents what mechanisms you will use at the end of your project to share and preserve your data
- ...is an integral part of the research process
Open Access Repositories
UB ScholarWorks is UB's digital repository, in which digital scholarship materials produced by the University of Bridgeport community are collected, preserved, and distributed. Read about how to add materials to UB ScholarWorks here.
You may want to deposit a copy of your work in a disciplinary repository. These can be found via sites such as:
Open Access Publishing
Open access means: "digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions" (Suber, 2012).
See the Open Access Publishing tab in this toolkit for more information.
Authors today have more options than ever before, but It's important to remember that not all publishers are honorable. While open access publishing provides exciting new options for universal, free access, some scholars have fallen victim to predatory publishers.
How to Evaluate a Journal
Use Cabell's Blacklist to find a list of journals Cabell's identifies as predatory
Use the Think-Check-Submit checklist.
Use the Journal Evaluation Tool from the Loyola Marymount University Librarians
Check if the journal is included in DOAJ (the Directory of Open Access Journals)
Check that the Journal is a member of the OASPA (Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association)
Check that the Journal is a member of the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics)
Being an informed author is important for your own publication record, and for the records of those you mentor or influence.
About Publishing Agreements*
*NOTE: The information offered here is not intended to serve as legal advice, but merely as a general introduction to the topic.
Any work in a fixed, tangible form of expression belongs to the creator (except for a few limited cases, such as works made for hire) and is automatically protected by copyright. This means that, early on, as you prepare to publish your work, you own the copyright to your articles, chapters, etc.
However, when you sign a publishing agreement, you may be transferring your copyright to another person or entity. It's important to know that:
- Transferring copyright means that you lose some, or all, of your rights because you give them to someone else. This can adversely impact your ability to use your own work as you wish in the future, such as teaching with it or sharing it.
- If you sign away all of your copyright, that may affect your ability to:
...make the work accessible in a digital repository
...use part of the work as a basis for a future publication
...send copies of the work to colleagues
...share copies of the work with students
...comply with the NIH Public Access Policy or other funding agency policies
...present the work at conference or meeting and give copies of the work to attendees
...use a different or extended version of the work for a future publication
...make copies of the work for personal use and educational use
...use graphs, charts, and statistical data for a future publication
...use the work for educational use such as lecture notes or study guides
...comply with public access mandates
...deposit supplemental data from the work in an institutional or subject repository
...place a copy of the work on electronic reserves or use for student course-packs
...include the work in future derivative works
...make an oral presentation of the work
...include the work in a dissertation or thesis
...use the work in a compilation of works or collected works
...expand the work into a book form or book chapter
...retain patent and trademark rights of processes or procedures contained in the work
- -Adapted from this list.
- Since publishing agreements are legal contracts, don't forget that you can negotiate with the publisher before signing.
- Publishers do not automatically have to become the holder of the copyright in order for your work to be published by them. In other words, it is entirely possible for you to retain some or all of the rights to your own work.
How do I negotiate with a publisher?
After approaching a publisher, authors are presented with a publishing agreement. If they wish to negotiate the terms of such an agreement, authors will attach an addendum (their desired changes) to the contract. The publisher will then respond to that, with any negotiations proceeding from there.
The following site offers useful links to ways in which authors typically seek to amend publishing agreements, including suggested author addendums. Or you might find the Scholars Copyright Addendum Engine (which will generate an addendum for you which preserves the rights considered most important to authors) useful.
Open access means: “digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions” (Suber, 2012).
Open access is a model of publishing that has a number of potential benefits to authors, to researchers, and to the general public. Open access can mean increased citation counts, improved retention of author rights so you can use your publications as you wish in the future, and better access to information for researchers at other institutions and in other parts of the world.
Types of Open Access
Sharing your research openly can be achieved in a number of ways. Any of these options support open access.
Green OA - Self-Archiving in Open Access Repositories
- Review your publication agreement before signing it.
- Check the terms related to archiving on an institutional repository, and tell your publisher you want to retain the right to deposit a copy of your work in your institution’s online archive/repository.
- At UB, this is UB ScholarWorks. (Some journals will allow you to archive a copy of your article in UB ScholarWorks after an embargo period.) You can submit your article now and set up an embargo period in UB ScholarWorks, which will release a copy of your work after the embargo period is up.*
- *Make sure you upload the version you are allowed to add to UB ScholarWorks (a post-print or final manuscript is different from the publisher’s version).
- Alternatively, you may want to deposit a copy of your work in a disciplinary repository. Search for open access repositories using The Directory of Open Access Repositories, OpenDOAR.
Gold OA - An Article Processing Charge has been paid for the article to remain open-access
- This fee can be paid for by an individual, a department, an institution or even by grant monies
- Publish in an Open Access journal that is recognized by and listed in both DOAJ and OASPA.
- Find out how to work with publishers to retain your rights by using the Publishing Agreements area of this toolkit.
Pay To Publish?
Some publishers ask for fees, or article processing charges (APCs), to make your publication openly accessible. Is this okay?
If the journal makes all of their publications available open access immediately, then there are no subscription fees. In this case, APCs are the publisher’s only revenue stream for the journal title. In this case, charging APCs is reasonable.
If the journal makes only some of their publications OA, then the publisher receives revenue from both subscriptions to the journal and APCs. In general, this is not considered a good practice.
Other considerations: How committed is the publisher to Open Access? Is OA their main publishing model, or one of several? And, what do they do with their revenue?